Warp-drive-this drive,distort space.Warp-drive has been created in 2063-year doctor Zefram Cochrane.This drive work on annihilation matter/antimatter. /dillithium cristalls use as catalyst for reaction matter/antimatter.

During TOS, the warp factor scale wasn't clearly defined. In his initial draft proposal, Star Trek is..., Gene Roddenberry established the maximum velocity of the starship as ".73 of one light year per hour". This would translate to a top speed of approximately 6,400 c (equivalent to TOS warp 18.56, and approximately warp 9.98 on the TNG scale).

The warp scale now commonly known as "TOS scale" was described in the series bible

(citation needed • edit)

and first appeared in widespread print in 1968 in The Making of Star Trek (pg. 191). The book also states a shift in relative time occurs while traveling at warp, an hour might equal to three hours experienced outside the ship. (pg. 198) In 1975, the warp scale given a more technical gloss in Franz Joseph's Star Fleet Technical Manual, now extended to include warp factors below 1. In 1977 Roddenberry again adopted the scale for the abortive Star Trek: Phase II series, but abandoned it for The Next Generation series.

According to these publications, the scale used by Starfleet in the 23rd century is based on a geometric progression, where the speed of a vessel (measured in multiples of c, the speed of light) is equal to the cube of the given warp factor. The warp factor was calculated as follows:

* v being the speed of the signal or starship

* c being the speed of light (3.0 × 108 m/s) and

* wf being the resulting warp factor

Or, to calculate speed (v) in terms of c the formula would be:

At warp 1, a starship would reach c; at warp 6, it would reach 216 c. This is a much slower speed as initially proposed by Roddenberry.

Using this warp factor formula, a trip from Earth to Alpha Centauri (4.33 light years) would take:

Warp factor Calculated speed (*c) Travel time

.5 0.125 34.64 years

1 1 4.33 years

2 8 197.69 days

3 27 58.57 days

4 64 24.71 days

5 125 12.65 days

6 216 7.32 days

7 343 4.61 days

8 512 3.09 days

9 729 52.07 hours

10 1000 37.96 hours

11 1331 28.52 hours

[edit] Star Trek: The Next Generation

According to the Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual, the warp factor scale used by Starfleet in the 24th century was based on a recalibration of the scale used in the 23rd century. Rather than a simple geometric progression based on relative speed, the scale was based upon the amount of power required to transition from one warp plateau to another. For example, the power to initially get to the recalibrated warp factor 1 was much more than the power required to maintain it; likewise warp 2, 3, 4, and so on. Those transitional power points rather than observed speed were then assigned the integer warp factors.

According to a Star Trek: The Magazine article by André Bormanis, this scale change occurred in 2312. A term was added to the above equation that caused the speed to rise slightly at lower warp factor, but to become infinite at warp 10. The ratio v/c at a given warp factor is equal to the corresponding cochrane value that describes the subspace distortion.

The 24th century scale was created at the start of Star Trek: The Next Generation. Gene Roddenberry stated that he wanted to avoid the ever-increasing warp factors used in the original series to force added tension to the story, and so imposed the limit of warp 10 as infinite speed.

For warp factors up to 9, the revised formula became:

* v being the speed of the signal or starship

* c being the speed of light (3.0 × 108 m/s) and

* wf being the resulting warp factor

Or, to calculate speed in terms of c (up to warp 9), the formula would be:

In this case, warp 1 is equivalent to c (as it was in the 23rd century scale); warp 6 is approximately 392 c.

Above warp 9 the exponent was increased above "10/3" exponentially, approaching infinity as the warp factor approaches 10.

This scale was used from TNG onwards.

Using this warp factor formula, a trip from Earth to Alpha Centauri (4.33 light years) would take:

Warp factor Calculated speed (*c) Travel time

.5 0.099 43.64 years

1 1 4.33 years

2 10.08 156.91 days

3 38.94 40.61 days

4 101.59 15.57 days

5 213.75 7.4 days

6 392.5 4.03 days

7 656.14 2.41 days

8 1024 37.07 hours

9 1516.38 25.03 hours

10 ∞ 0

[edit] Star Trek: Voyager

In the pilot episode of the series, VOY: "Caretaker", it is established that at "at maximum speeds" it would take 75 years for Voyager to reach Earth, that was at that time approximated to be 70,000 light years away. In Star Trek: Voyager Technical Manual it is stated that this calculation is based on a non-stop direct journey at the speed of warp 9.6. This indicates warp 9.6 equals to approximately 933 times the speed of light.

[edit] Star Trek: Enterprise

There are instances where it appears that Enterprise NX-01 uses the "TOS scale". Speeds mentioned in ENT: "Broken Bow" of traveling at 30,000,000 kilometers per second, and going to "Neptune and back in six minutes." fit well into the ballpark of warp factors between 4 and 5.

In ENT: "Regeneration", Trip states that warp 4.8 (approximately 111 times the speed of light in the TOS scale and 186 times the speed of light in the TNG scale) is double the speed of warp 3.9 (approximately 59 or 93 times the speed of light respectively), which is a close enough margin of error for either scale, considering it is an offhand comment made without navigational implications.

A journey from Earth to Qo'noS in four days, as stated in ENT: "Broken Bow", is however not compatible with the scales. Qo'noS is at least approximately 107 light years away from Earth according to the Star Trek: Star Charts. This indicates that the relative speed of almost 9,800 times the speed of light is achieved by the ship.

Also in ENT: "Fortunate Son", it is stated that warp 1.8 is "ten times slower than warp 3". This doesn't work out in either of the formulas above - warp 1.8 would be only 5.4 or 5.5 times slower.

[edit] Alternate reality

The alternate USS Enterprise at warp in Star Trek

AlientravellerAdded by Alientraveller

In the alternate reality, seen in Star Trek, USS Enterprise traveled to Vulcan at maximum warp. According to background sources [1] this corresponds to warp factor 8. Directly after the ship had achieved maximum warp, Captain Christopher Pike ordered Pavel Chekov to give an announcement of the mission to the crew. At the end of the broadcast, Chekov stated that the ship would arrive within 3 minutes. According to ENT: "Daedalus" Vulcan is located slightly over 16 light years away from Earth.

Warp-drive "Sovereign".

The electro-plasma system (EPS for short, or more specifically the electro-plasma distribution network, as engineers like to call it) is the primary form of energy distribution on starships.

The technology is based on storing energy in a highly energetic plasma, "electro-plasma," and distributing it throughout the ship via plasma conduits, called EPS conduits. The system of conduits is also referred to as the plasma grid. EPS conduits usually start at a matter-antimatter reaction assembly, also called the warp core, where matter is converted to energy, and extend to all areas of a ship. Plasma conduit power levels are regulated by plasma coolant ducts, and monitored by plasma conversion sensors.

EPS manifold circa 2151 technology

GvsualanAdded by Gvsualan

Very large conduits extend from the warp core, through the nacelle struts, and into the nacelles to facilitate the massive power transfer to the warp coils needed to create a warp field. A plasma stream is directed by plasma injectors at the warp coils.

In addition to distributing power to the warp nacelles, various EPS taps are placed on the conduits throughout the ship to enable other systems to access electro-plasma wherever it is needed. From the EPS taps, the energy is distributed through conventional electricity; however, this conversion often occurs deep inside the components of a subsystem. Some systems use plasma distribution manifolds (or plasma manifolds, for short) to manage the power conversion level.

Electro-plasma can also be bled off into plasma canisters or a plasma infuser for mobile use as an energy source.

The USS Enterprise-D had a primary plasma system and a backup secondary plasma system. Additional systems were the life support power flow and the auxiliary replicator system. (TNG: "The Mind's Eye")

A massive EPS explosion in cargo bay 4 was detected by internal sensors in 2368, it later turned out that it was just a malfunction caused by tampering with the conduit by solanogen-based lifeforms. (TNG: "Schisms")

EPS

A graphic of the secondary plasma system.

During TOS, the warp factor scale wasn't clearly defined. In his initial draft proposal, Star Trek is..., Gene Roddenberry established the maximum velocity of the starship as ".73 of one light year per hour". This would translate to a top speed of approximately 6,400 c (equivalent to TOS warp 18.56, and approximately warp 9.98 on the TNG scale).

The warp scale now commonly known as "TOS scale" was described in the series bible

(citation needed • edit)

and first appeared in widespread print in 1968 in The Making of Star Trek (pg. 191). The book also states a shift in relative time occurs while traveling at warp, an hour might equal to three hours experienced outside the ship. (pg. 198) In 1975, the warp scale given a more technical gloss in Franz Joseph's Star Fleet Technical Manual, now extended to include warp factors below 1. In 1977 Roddenberry again adopted the scale for the abortive Star Trek: Phase II series, but abandoned it for The Next Generation series.

According to these publications, the scale used by Starfleet in the 23rd century is based on a geometric progression, where the speed of a vessel (measured in multiples of c, the speed of light) is equal to the cube of the given warp factor. The warp factor was calculated as follows:

* v being the speed of the signal or starship

* c being the speed of light (3.0 × 108 m/s) and

* wf being the resulting warp factor

Or, to calculate speed (v) in terms of c the formula would be:

At warp 1, a starship would reach c; at warp 6, it would reach 216 c. This is a much slower speed as initially proposed by Roddenberry.

Using this warp factor formula, a trip from Earth to Alpha Centauri (4.33 light years) would take:

Warp factor Calculated speed (*c) Travel time

.5 0.125 34.64 years

1 1 4.33 years

2 8 197.69 days

3 27 58.57 days

4 64 24.71 days

5 125 12.65 days

6 216 7.32 days

7 343 4.61 days

8 512 3.09 days

9 729 52.07 hours

10 1000 37.96 hours

11 1331 28.52 hours

[edit] Star Trek: The Next Generation

According to the Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual, the warp factor scale used by Starfleet in the 24th century was based on a recalibration of the scale used in the 23rd century. Rather than a simple geometric progression based on relative speed, the scale was based upon the amount of power required to transition from one warp plateau to another. For example, the power to initially get to the recalibrated warp factor 1 was much more than the power required to maintain it; likewise warp 2, 3, 4, and so on. Those transitional power points rather than observed speed were then assigned the integer warp factors.

According to a Star Trek: The Magazine article by André Bormanis, this scale change occurred in 2312. A term was added to the above equation that caused the speed to rise slightly at lower warp factor, but to become infinite at warp 10. The ratio v/c at a given warp factor is equal to the corresponding cochrane value that describes the subspace distortion.

The 24th century scale was created at the start of Star Trek: The Next Generation. Gene Roddenberry stated that he wanted to avoid the ever-increasing warp factors used in the original series to force added tension to the story, and so imposed the limit of warp 10 as infinite speed.

For warp factors up to 9, the revised formula became:

* v being the speed of the signal or starship

* c being the speed of light (3.0 × 108 m/s) and

* wf being the resulting warp factor

Or, to calculate speed in terms of c (up to warp 9), the formula would be:

In this case, warp 1 is equivalent to c (as it was in the 23rd century scale); warp 6 is approximately 392 c.

Above warp 9 the exponent was increased above "10/3" exponentially, approaching infinity as the warp factor approaches 10.

This scale was used from TNG onwards.

Using this warp factor formula, a trip from Earth to Alpha Centauri (4.33 light years) would take:

Warp factor Calculated speed (*c) Travel time

.5 0.099 43.64 years

1 1 4.33 years

2 10.08 156.91 days

3 38.94 40.61 days

4 101.59 15.57 days

5 213.75 7.4 days

6 392.5 4.03 days

7 656.14 2.41 days

8 1024 37.07 hours

9 1516.38 25.03 hours

10 ∞ 0

[edit] Star Trek: Voyager

In the pilot episode of the series, VOY: "Caretaker", it is established that at "at maximum speeds" it would take 75 years for Voyager to reach Earth, that was at that time approximated to be 70,000 light years away. In Star Trek: Voyager Technical Manual it is stated that this calculation is based on a non-stop direct journey at the speed of warp 9.6. This indicates warp 9.6 equals to approximately 933 times the speed of light.

[edit] Star Trek: Enterprise

There are instances where it appears that Enterprise NX-01 uses the "TOS scale". Speeds mentioned in ENT: "Broken Bow" of traveling at 30,000,000 kilometers per second, and going to "Neptune and back in six minutes." fit well into the ballpark of warp factors between 4 and 5.

In ENT: "Regeneration", Trip states that warp 4.8 (approximately 111 times the speed of light in the TOS scale and 186 times the speed of light in the TNG scale) is double the speed of warp 3.9 (approximately 59 or 93 times the speed of light respectively), which is a close enough margin of error for either scale, considering it is an offhand comment made without navigational implications.

A journey from Earth to Qo'noS in four days, as stated in ENT: "Broken Bow", is however not compatible with the scales. Qo'noS is at least approximately 107 light years away from Earth according to the Star Trek: Star Charts. This indicates that the relative speed of almost 9,800 times the speed of light is achieved by the ship.

Also in ENT: "Fortunate Son", it is stated that warp 1.8 is "ten times slower than warp 3". This doesn't work out in either of the formulas above - warp 1.8 would be only 5.4 or 5.5 times slower.

[edit] Alternate reality

The alternate USS Enterprise at warp in Star Trek

AlientravellerAdded by Alientraveller

In the alternate reality, seen in Star Trek, USS Enterprise traveled to Vulcan at maximum warp. According to background sources [1] this corresponds to warp factor 8. Directly after the ship had achieved maximum warp, Captain Christopher Pike ordered Pavel Chekov to give an announcement of the mission to the crew. At the end of the broadcast, Chekov stated that the ship would arrive within 3 minutes. According to ENT: "Daedalus" Vulcan is located slightly over 16 light years away from Earth.

Warp-drive "Sovereign".

The electro-plasma system (EPS for short, or more specifically the electro-plasma distribution network, as engineers like to call it) is the primary form of energy distribution on starships.

The technology is based on storing energy in a highly energetic plasma, "electro-plasma," and distributing it throughout the ship via plasma conduits, called EPS conduits. The system of conduits is also referred to as the plasma grid. EPS conduits usually start at a matter-antimatter reaction assembly, also called the warp core, where matter is converted to energy, and extend to all areas of a ship. Plasma conduit power levels are regulated by plasma coolant ducts, and monitored by plasma conversion sensors.

EPS manifold circa 2151 technology

GvsualanAdded by Gvsualan

Very large conduits extend from the warp core, through the nacelle struts, and into the nacelles to facilitate the massive power transfer to the warp coils needed to create a warp field. A plasma stream is directed by plasma injectors at the warp coils.

In addition to distributing power to the warp nacelles, various EPS taps are placed on the conduits throughout the ship to enable other systems to access electro-plasma wherever it is needed. From the EPS taps, the energy is distributed through conventional electricity; however, this conversion often occurs deep inside the components of a subsystem. Some systems use plasma distribution manifolds (or plasma manifolds, for short) to manage the power conversion level.

Electro-plasma can also be bled off into plasma canisters or a plasma infuser for mobile use as an energy source.

The USS Enterprise-D had a primary plasma system and a backup secondary plasma system. Additional systems were the life support power flow and the auxiliary replicator system. (TNG: "The Mind's Eye")

A massive EPS explosion in cargo bay 4 was detected by internal sensors in 2368, it later turned out that it was just a malfunction caused by tampering with the conduit by solanogen-based lifeforms. (TNG: "Schisms")

EPS

A graphic of the secondary plasma system.